Videos uploaded by user “Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)”
Macropinna microstoma: A deep-sea fish with a transparent head and tubular eyes
MBARI researchers Bruce Robison and Kim Reisenbichler used video taken by unmanned, undersea robots called remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to study barreleye fish in the deep waters just offshore of Central California. At depths of 600 to 800 meters (2,000 to 2,600 feet) below the surface, the ROV cameras typically showed these fish hanging motionless in the water, their eyes glowing a vivid green in the ROV's bright lights. The ROV video also revealed a previously undescribed feature of these fish--its eyes are surrounded by a transparent, fluid-filled shield that covers the top of the fish's head. This video is narrated by senior scientist Bruce Robison. For more on this story, see MBARI's news release at: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2009/barreleye/barreleye.html For more cool animal images, see MBARI's feature images galleries: http://www.mbari.org/news/feature-image/feature-image-gallery-2.html
Eerie critters from the deep sea: SPOOKY EYES
For Halloween 2013, a collection of deep-sea animals with very spooky eyes! In order of appearance: Glass squid, owlfish, vampire squid, rattail fish, longnose skate, crystal amphipod (with orange compound eyes), spot prawn, barreleye fish (with green tubular eyes), slickhead fish, sea toad fish, Dover sole, swordtail squid, shiny loosejaw fish, eight-armed squid and Ray Troll's ratfish. Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Music: Halloween Sputnik by Richard Desilets
Deep-sea octopus invests in future: Longest brooding period ever recorded
Researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have observed a deep-sea octopus brooding its eggs for four and one half years—much longer than any other known animal. Throughout this time, the female kept the eggs clean and guarded them from predators. This amazing feat represents an evolutionary balancing act between the benefits to the young octopuses of having plenty of time to develop within their eggs, and their mother’s ability to survive for years with little or no food. Although long-term observations of deep-sea animals are rare, the researchers propose that extended brooding periods may be common in the deep sea. Such extended life stages would need to be taken into account in assessing the effects of human activities on deep-sea animals. In any case, this strategy has apparently worked for Graneledone boreopacifica—it is one of the most common deep-sea octopuses in the Northeastern Pacific. Video producer: Susan von Thun Script and narration: Bruce Robison Production support: Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Kyra Schlining, Lonny Lundsten, Linda Kuhnz MBARI press release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2014/octomom/octomom-release.html Original journal article: Robison B., Seibel B., Drazen J. (2014), Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal. PLoS ONE 9(7): e103437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103437
The harp sponge: an extraordinary new species of carnivorous sponge
In this video we describe a new species of carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia lyra from the deep-sea off California. C. lyra is called the harp sponge because its basic structure, called a vane, is shaped like a harp or lyre. Each vane consists of a horizontal branch supporting several parallel, vertical branches. Clinging with root-like "rhizoids" to the soft, muddy sediment, the harp sponge captures tiny animals that are swept into its branches by deep-sea currents. Typically, sponges feed by straining bacteria and bits of organic material from the seawater they filter through their bodies. However, carnivorous harp sponges snare their prey—tiny crustaceans—with barbed hooks that cover the sponge's branching limbs. Once the harp sponge has its prey in its clutches, it envelops the animal in a thin membrane, and then slowly begins to digest it. The harp sponge's unusual shape and exposure to currents may also help it to reproduce more effectively. The swollen balls at the tip of the sponge's upright branches produce packets of sperm. These sperm packets are released into passing currents and are captured on the branches of other nearby sponges. The sperm then works its way from the packets into the host sponge to fertilize its eggs. As the fertilized eggs mature, these contact sites swell up, forming bulges part way up the host sponge's branches (see photo). MBARI article: http://www.mbari.org/scientists-discover-extraordinary-new-carnivorous-sponge/ Publication reference: Lee, W. L., Reiswig, H. M., Austin, W. C. and Lundsten, L. (2012), An extraordinary new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia lyra, in the new subgenus Symmetrocladia (Demospongiae, Cladorhizidae), from off of northern California, USA. Invertebrate Biology. doi: 10.1111/ivb.12001 Web link to the article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10...
The pointy-nosed blue ratfish Hydrolagus trolli
Video observations of Hydrolagus cf trolli, the pointy-nosed blue ratfish, from the Northeast Pacific ocean represent a range extension for the species and are the first ever of this animal alive, in its natural habitat. The species was originally described from specimens collected off New Caledonia in 2002. It was named in honor of Alaskan artist Ray Troll because of his fascination and appreciation for this strange group of fishes known as chimaeras. For more information visit: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: http://www.mbari.org/the-pointy-nosed-blue-chimaera-really-gets-around/ Moss Landing Marine Laboratories: www.mlml.calstate.edu Pacific Shark Research Center: psrc.mlml.calstate.edu Publication: Reichert, A. N., Lundsten, L., & Ebert, D. A. (2016). First North Pacific records of the pointy nosed blue chimaera, Hydrolagus cf. trolli (Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae). Marine Biodiversity Records, 1–5. http://doi.org/10.1186/s41200-016-0095-5 Video producer: Lonny Lundsten Music: Inge Chiles (http://ingsyeah.com) Script: Amber Reichert and Lonny Lundsten Narration: Lonny Lundsten Production support: Kyra Schlining, Linda Kuhnz, Susan von Thun, Nancy Jacobsen Stout Special thanks to Ray Troll (http://www.trollart.com) for his artwork.
Ghostly critters from the deep sea: Stygiomedusa gigantea
Stygiomedusa gigantea is one of the largest invertebrate predators known in the ocean, yet little is understood about its ecology and behavior. Stygiomedusa lacks tentacles, but has four extraordinarily large oral arms that are presumably used to envelope prey. The swimming bell of this spectacular medusa can reach over one meter across with arms over ten meters long. A symbiotic relationship between Stygiomedusa and the fish, Thalassobathia pelagica, was confirmed in 2003 when scientists from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) filmed the pair swimming together in the Gulf of California. The fish has adapted to using the medusa as a hiding place in its open ocean habitat. In twenty-seven years of scientific ROV surveys, researchers at MBARI have been lucky enough to observe this rare animal seven times, from depths of 750 meters down to 2187 meters. Video editing & script: Kyra Schlining Narration: Andrew Hamilton Music: Heavy Water, APM Music, LLC Production support: Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Linda Kuhnz, Lonny Lundsten, Susan vonThun, George Matsumoto, Steve Haddock, Kim Fulton-Bennett Data for map from: OBIS (2015) [Distribution records of Stygiomedusa gigantea (Brown, 1910)] [ID numbers for data sources: 1620; 2524; 2303; 500] (Available: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. http://www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2015-10-23) For more information: www.mbari.org See also: Drazen, J.C., and Robison, B.H. 2004. Direct observations of the association between a deep-sea fish and a giant scyphomedusa. Journal of Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology (37): 209-214.
Weird and wonderful deep-sea worms
Polychaete worms are common in the ocean. These worms have segmented bodies with paddle-like feet or parapodia on each segment. Most have bristles, or chaetae, that they use for defense, crawling, or swimming. Approximately 8,000 species have been described so far, but many new species are still being discovered. Some of the most beautiful and amazing polychaetes can be found in the midwater. In memory of Kristian Fauchald. Video script/narration/editing: Kyra Schlining Music: Inge Chiles (http://ings.bandcamp.com) Production support: Kim Fulton-Bennett, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Linda Kuhnz, Lonny Lundsten, Karen Osborn, Susan vonThun Special thanks to Karen Osborn, Steve Haddock, Kande Williston, and Wikimedia for still images. Bioluminescence footage courtesy of NHK, Japan. For more information: http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2015/polychaetes/polychaete-day.html http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2007/pworm.html
Feast in the deep
Dead whales that sink down to the seafloor provide a feast for deep-sea animals that can last for years. Previous research suggested that such "whale falls" were homes for unique animals that lived nowhere else. However, after sinking five whale carcasses in Monterey Canyon, researchers from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) found that most of the animals at these sites were not unique to whale falls, but were common in other deep-sea environments as well. The whale-fall communities also included a few very abundant animals that were "bone specialists," including 15 species of bone-eating Osedax worms and several newly discovered species of bone-eating snails. For more information, see: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2010/whalefalls/whalefalls-release.html
Deep-Sea Discoveries: Squid Graveyard
On an expedition in the Gulf of California, MBARI researchers discovered a surprising number of deep-sea squid carcasses on the ocean floor. The squid have a fascinating life history, but their story doesn't end when they die. They become food for hungry scavengers and might change the rhythm of life in the deep sea. Egg sheets were up to 2.5 m (over 8 feet) long. The Gulf of California lies between mainland Mexico and Baja. MBARI researchers conducted expeditions there in 2003, 2012 and 2015. For more information, see https://www.mbari.org/squid-graveyard/ Script and narration: Vicky Stein (MBARI Communications Intern) Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Music: Amazing Lake Original journal article: Hoving, H.J.T., Bush, S.L., Haddock, S.H.D., Robison, B.H. (2017). Bathyal feasting: post-spawning squid as a source of carbon for deep-sea benthic communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20172096, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.2096
The anglerfish: The original approach to deep-sea fishing
Deep-sea anglerfish are strange and elusive creatures that are very rarely observed in their natural habitat. Fewer than half a dozen have ever been captured on film or video by deep diving research vehicles. This little angler, about 9 cm long, is named Melanocetus. It is also known as the Black Seadevil and it lives in the deep dark waters of the Monterey Canyon. MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts observed this anglerfish for the first time at 600 meters on a midwater research expedition in November 2014. We believe that this is the first video footage ever made of this species alive and at depth. Watch a video about a different type of anglerfish observed by ROV Doc Ricketts for the first time: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cl_MbvSUvTk&list=UUFXww6CrLAHhyZQCDnJ2g2A For more information: http://www.mbari.org Video producer: Susan vonThun Script and narration: Bruce Robison
The giant larvacean Bathochordaeus
Bathochordaeus is considered a giant among larvaceans. The giant larvacean’s claim to fame is the huge mucous house it builds. The house is made up of two filters and basically functions as an elaborate feeding apparatus. They eat tiny particles of dead or drifting plants and animals that float through the water column. The outer filter traps larger particles too big for the animal to eat, while the inner filter guides smaller food particles into the larvacean’s mouth. Eventually the filters get clogged and the larvacean abandons them. The sinking houses, packed with food particles, provide an important source of food for animals living on the seafloor. Researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) are using remotely operated vehicles, video cameras, and lasers to study giant larvaceans right in their own habitat. We just described a new species of giant larvacean, Bathochordaeus mcnutti, making a total of three species of giant larvacean now found in Monterey Bay, California. Video producer/editor/script/narration: Teresa Carey (MBARI Communications Intern) Music: The Jazz Piano, Jazz Comedy (Royalty Free Music from Bensound; http://www.bensound.com) Production support: Kyra Schlining, Lonny Lundsten, Susan von Thun, Rob Sherlock, Kim Fulton-Bennett, & Kakani Katija For more information: http://www.mbari.org/taking-a-closer-look-leads-to-discovery-of-a-prevalent-deep-sea-animal/
The law of beak and claw
This video shows a deep-sea squid Gonatus onyx fighting to eat an owlfish Pseudobathylagus milleri. It was recorded using remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts. The title of this video refers to the law of tooth and claw, a literary theme depicting the violence in nature. Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" is a classic example of this theme. Video producer: Susan von Thun Script and narration: Bruce Robison Production support: Nancy Jacobsen Stout
Eerie critters from the deep sea: PREDATORS AND SCAVENGERS
For Halloween 2012, deep-sea animals eating or scavenging for food. In order of appearance: Black ghost shark eating a dead fish, galaxy siphonophore digesting a live fish, crab scavenging a whale bone, comb jelly eating another comb jelly, small octopus hunting, black-eye squid feeding on a juvenile, Humboldt squid eating squid hatchlings. Special thanks to: NHK (comb jelly footage) Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Music: Haunted, composed by Jason Bradley Livesay
Pteropods: Swimming snails of the sea
The pteropods are a fascinating group of snails that spend their entire lives swimming or drifting in the ocean and never touching the bottom. Pteropoda means wing-foot referring to their muscular foot that has evolved into a pair of wings allowing them to take advantage of the Earth’s largest habitat, the open ocean. There are two distinct types of pteropods – those with shells and those without. The shelled pteropods produce a net of sticky mucous to passively collect and eat marine snow. The pteropods without shells are all carnivores and as far as we know, feed solely upon the shelled pteropods. The pteropods are a widespread and diverse group, and play an important role in the oceanic food web. However, the increasing acidity of the ocean leaves the fragile pteropod shells vulnerable to dissolving, challenging the health and growth of these species. These impacts may reach beyond pteropods to the variety of animals, including fishes, sharks, squids, and marine mammals that eat them. Video script & narration: Stephanie Bush Video editing: Kyra Schlining Music: Satellites (APM Music, LLC) Production support: Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Linda Kuhnz, Lonny Lundsten, Bruce Robison, Susan von Thun Still images courtesy of: Stephanie Bush, David Liittschwager, & Karen Osborn Notobranchaea footage at 01:37 ©2004 BBC, filmed at MBARI in conjunction with NHK Japan. For more information: www.mbari.org
There's no such thing as a jellyfish
By all accounts, jellyfish are creatures that kill people, eat microbes, grow to tens of meters, filter phytoplankton, take over ecosystems, and live forever. Because of the immense diversity of gelatinous plankton, jelly-like creatures can individually have each of these properties. However this way of looking at them both overstates and underestimates their true diversity. Taxonomically, they are far more varied than a handful of exemplars that are used to represent jellyfish or especially the so-called "true" jellyfish. Ecologically, they are even more adaptable than one would expect by looking only at the conspicuous bloom forming families and species that draw most of the attention. In reality, the most abundant and diverse gelatinous groups in the ocean are not the ones that anyone ever sees. To report sightings of jellyfish and other marine organisms, go to http://jellywatch.org/
Four new species of carnivorous sponges: Adapting to life in the deep sea
This video describes four new species of carnivorous sponges from the Northeast Pacific Ocean that were discovered by MBARI scientists. Carnivorous feeding in sponges is an adaption to the food poor deep-sea environment, where filter feeding -- the typical way sponges feed -- is energetically expensive. Instead, these sponges trap small crustaceans with microscopic hooks. Once trapped, sponge cells mobilize, engulf the prey, and rapidly digest it. In addition to consuming small crustacean prey, one of these species appears to be consuming methane-oxidizing chemosynthetic bacteria. For more information visit: MBARI's news release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2014/killersponges/killersponges-release.html Lundsten, L., Reiswig, H.M., and Austin, W.C. (2014). Four new species of Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Northeast Pacific. Zootaxa 3786 (2): 101--123. http://www.biotaxa.org/Zootaxa/article/view/zootaxa.3786.2.1 We thank the Shape of Life for use of fluorescent dye video footage (http://www.shapeoflife.org/ & https://www.facebook.com/theshapeoflife) and Inge Chiles (http://music.iloveings.com) for original music composition.
Pelagic parenting: A deep-sea squid broods its eggs
Reproduction is one of the many challenges faced by deep-sea animals. In recent years, submersibles have allowed scientists to explore the lives of deep-sea animals in ways that were not possible before. One of the many exciting discoveries was that a mother of the deep-sea squid species Gonatus onyx broods her eggs by holding them in her arms, a behavior that had never been previously reported for squids. This shocking discovery was the first time scientists had evidence of parental care in squids. In 2012, a team of researchers led by Stephanie Bush, reported finding another species of deep-sea squid that broods eggs, Bathyteuthis berryi, suggesting that this form of parental care may be a common solution to a reproductive problem for deep-sea squids. Publication: Bush, S. L., Hoving, H. J. T., Huffard, C. L., Robison, B. R., & L. D. Zeidberg. 2012. Brooding and sperm storage by the deep-sea squid Bathyteuthis berryi (Cephalopoda: Decapodiformes). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 92(7):1629-1636. Video producer: Susan vonThun Music: "Aqua lounge", www.freestockmusic.com Script and narration: Stephanie Bush Production support: Lonny Lundsten, Kyra Schlining, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Linda Kuhnz, Bruce Robison
What the vampire squid really eats
For years marine biologists have puzzled over what the mysterious vampire squid eats. Recent research by Henk-Jan Hoving and Bruce Robison at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute finally reveals the answer. These deep-sea creatures use long, retractile filaments to passively harvest particles and aggregates of detritus, or marine snow, sinking from the waters above. This feeding strategy, unknown in any other cephalopod (this group of animals includes squid and octopods), allows vampire squid to thrive in the oxygen minimum zone where there are few predators but marine detritus is abundant. Video script & narration: Henk-Jan Hoving Video editing: Kyra Schlining Production support: Bruce Robison, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Susan vonThun, Lonny Lundsten, Linda Kuhnz Bioluminescence footage courtesy of NHK, Japan. For more information see: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2012/vampfood/vampfood-release.html
Davidson Seamount: The Biology of an Underwater Mountain
Over the last two decades, marine biologists have discovered lush forests of deep-sea corals and sponges growing on seamounts (underwater mountains) offshore of the California coast. It has generally been assumed that many of these animals live only on seamounts, and are found nowhere else. However, new research from MBARI shows that most seamount animals can also be found in other deep-sea areas. Seamounts, however, do support particularly large, dense clusters of these animals. These findings may help coastal managers protect seamounts from damage by human activities. For more information, see: MBARI news release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2009/seamounts/seamounts.html C. R. McClain, L. Lundsten, M. Ream, J. P. Barry, A. DeVogelaere. Endemicity, biogeography, composition, and community structure on a Northeast Pacific Seamount. PLOS ONE. Vol 4, Issue 1. January 2009 L. Lundsten, J. P. Barry, G. M. Cailliet, D. A. Clague, A. DeVogelaere, J. B. Geller. Benthic invertebrate communities on three seamounts off southern and central California. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol 374. pp 23-32. January 13, 2009
Pescadero Basin: Deepest hydrothermal vents in the Gulf of California
During a recent expedition to the Gulf of California scientists from MBARI discovered a new field of hydrothermal vents, the deepest yet discovered in the Gulf of California. These new hydrothermal vent fields were found over thirty-eight hundred meters below the surface in the Pescadero Basin, located off the east coast of Mexico’s Baja California, about one hundred miles east of La Paz. These hydrothermal vents result from a unique combination of geology and chemistry. Using a remotely operated vehicle, researchers found towering white columns emitting geysers of clear shimmering liquid with temperatures up to 290 degrees Celsius. The superheated water flowing from these vents starts deep underground. As the hot water rises, it flows through and reacts with the surrounding bedrock, becoming saturated with carbonate minerals, which build up over time to form the large chimneys that were observed. For more information go to MBARI news release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2015/pescadero/pescadero-release.html
Hiding in plain sight: Mimicry in a juvenile deep-sea squid
Visual predators exert strong selective forces on their prey that can lead to the evolution of unique ecological relationships between unrelated taxa. Scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) describe the first case of siphonophore mimicry by a cephalopod using video from remotely operated vehicles. Juveniles of the deep pelagic squid Chiroteuthis calyx were observed orienting and coloring their tail and body to closely match the common deep pelagic siphophore Nanomia. As juveniles progress into the subadult life stage, they lose their tail, and therefore the ability to resemble the siphonophore. It is likely that the smaller and more vulnerable juvenile Chiroteuthis avoid predation as a result of mimicking Nanomia’s appearance and behavior. Additional images from: CSIRO The Graphics Fairy Wikimedia Commons Video editor: Kyra Schlining Script and narration: Ben Burford Production support: Bruce Robison, Susan vonThun, Lonny Lundsten, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Kim Fulton-Bennett For more information visit: http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2014/mimic/mimic.html Original journal article: B.P. Burford, B.H. Robison, and R.E. Sherlock. (2014) Behaviour and mimicry in the juvenile and subadult life stages of the mesopelagic squid Chiroteuthis calyx. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. pp. 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315414001763
Extreme worms: Specialized seafloor polychaetes
We created this video in celebration of the second annual International Polychaete Day (July 1, 2016). It highlights polychaete worms with special adaptations enabling them to survive in extreme environments on the deep seafloor, such as decaying whale skeletons and hydrothermal vents. Some of these worms can tolerate water temperatures up to 176 degrees Fahrenheit! Video editing/script: Kyra Schlining Narration: Shannon Johnson Williams Music: Jaracanda.caf (Apple Inc.) Production support: Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Lonny Lundsten, Susan von Thun, Linda Kuhnz, Shannon Johnson Williams, and Karen Osborn Special thanks to the Monterey Bay Aquarium for use of the chemosynthesis graphic. For more information: http://www.mbari.org https://youtu.be/cdr1kWmSiiE
Fluorescence in the deep-sea squid Histioteuthis: The case of the green-eyed squid
Scientists at MBARI recently deployed blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on our remotely operated submersibles to observe fluorescence in deep-sea animals and investigate the ecological roles of light in the deep sea. When we shined blue LEDs on the strawberry squid, Histioteuthis, we were surprised by an impressive light show. This squid has one normal-sized eye, and one extraordinarily large eye, which was brightly fluorescent, indicating the presence of a blue-absorbing fluorescent pigment. The fluorescent pigment most likely aids in capturing prey by breaking their camouflage. Many organisms have fluorescent structures, but we are still exploring what the natural functions of these fluorescent pigments are. For more information on fluorescence and bioluminescence go to http://biolum.eemb.ucsb.edu Video narration/animation/music/photos: Steve Haddock Video editing: Kyra Schlining Production support: Danielle Haddock, Linda Kuhnz, Lonny Lundsten, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, & Susan vonThun http://www.mbari.org
Caught in the act: a crab eating frozen gas
This video was recorded during an expedition led by MBARI Senior Scientist Peter Brewer that was exploring methane gas deposits off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. While surveying the seafloor, the science team observed a deep-sea crab interacting with naturally occurring methane which was bubbling from the seafloor. Methane hydrate, a solid ice of methane, formed when the crab attempted to 'eat' the bubbles. This video illustrates an unusual property of hydrocarbon gas behavior under the extreme pressure and cold temperatures found at 1,260 meters below the oceans surface. It also gives us one example of how organisms living on the seafloor might interact with naturally occurring hydrocarbons. To learn more about MBARI research click on the links below: http://www.mbari.org http://www.mbari.org/topics/chemistry/chem-main.htm http://www.mbari.org/topics/biology/bio-main.htm Or follow along on our social media networks: https://www.facebook.com/MBARInews https://twitter.com/MBARI_News
The Vampire Squid - an ancient species faces new dangers in the deep
The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) lives in the deep ocean, home to the largest ecosystems on our planet. A "living fossil," this animal has remained relatively unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. The deep ocean contains what may be the greatest number of animal species, the greatest biomass, and the greatest number of individual organisms in the living world. Humans have explored the deep ocean for about 150 years, and most of what is known is based on studies of the deep seafloor. In contrast, the water column above the deep seabed comprises more than 90% of the living space, yet less than 1% of this biome has been explored. The deep pelagic biota is the largest and least-known major faunal group on Earth despite its obvious importance at the global scale. Pelagic species represent an incomparable reservoir of biodiversity. Although we have yet to discover and describe the majority of these species, the threats to their continued existence are numerous and growing. Conserving deep pelagic biodiversity is a problem of global proportions that has never been addressed comprehensively. The potential effects of these threats include the extensive restructuring of entire ecosystems, changes in the geographical ranges of many species, large-scale elimination of taxa, and a decline in biodiversity at all scales. This review provides an initial framework of threat assessment for confronting the challenge of conserving deep pelagic biodiversity; and it outlines the need for baseline surveys and protected areas as preliminary policy goals. B. H. Robison. Conservation of deep pelagic diversity. Conservation Biology. 2009. Vol 23, Issue 4. August, 2009. http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2010/deep-conservation/deep-conservation-release.html http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122323401/abstract
Turbidity current in Mendocino Canyon
This video was posted as supplementary material for the following publication: E.J. Sumner and C.K. Paull, 2014, Swept Away By a Turbidity Current in Mendocino Submarine E.J. Canyon, California. Geophysical Research Letters. l1http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL061863/abstract For a non-technical article about this turbidity current, see: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2015/swept-away/swept-away.html
Big changes in the Sargasso Sea
The Sargasso Sea occupies almost two thirds of the North Atlantic Ocean. Within this sea, circling ocean currents accumulate mats of Sargassum seaweed that shelter a surprising variety of fishes, snails, crabs, and other small animals. A recent paper by MBARI researchers shows that in 2011 and 2012 this animal community was much less diverse than it was in the early 1970s, when the last detailed studies were completed in this region. This study shows that animal communities in the Sargasso Sea are definitely changing. The next step is to find out why. Special thanks to: Schmidt Ocean Institute for support and funding KAI Institute, Don Montague & Joe Brock Debbie Nail Meyer Carola Buchner NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio Monterey Bay Aquarium Wikipedia / World Ocean Atlas (CC BY-SA 3.0) Video producer: Susan vonThun Script and narration: Susan vonThun Production support: Lonny Lundsten, Kyra Schlining, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Judith Connor, Christine Huffard, Ken Smith Music: "Aqua lounge", www.freestockmusic.com MBARI press release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2014/sargasso/sargasso-release.html Original journal article: C.L. Huffard, S. von Thun, A.D. Sherman, K. Sealey and K.L. Smith, Jr. (2014) Pelagic Sargassum community change over a 40-year period: temporal and spatial variability. Marine Biology, http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00227-014-2539-y
Hide and Seek in the Deep
This video shows some adaptations animals have for camouflaging themselves in the deep sea. Many of the animals in the deep-sea use red pigments to hide themselves because red light is one of the first wavelengths of visible light to be absorbed by the ocean (at approximately 100 meters), rendering any animal using it invisible. The red coloration is visible in these images because high-intensity lights shining from the ROV illuminate the scene.
Trash in the deep sea: Bringing a hidden problem to light
Using advanced technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is helping to uncover the far-reaching presence of man-made debris in deep ocean ecosystems. Over the past 25 years, we have recorded evidence of debris up to 13,000 feet deep and 300 miles offshore from waters off of central and southern California, the Pacific Northwest, Hawaii, and the Gulf of California. We've seen trash everywhere we've looked. In the greater Monterey Bay region, the majority of debris items were single-use, recyclable items. Plastic shopping bags and aluminum beverage cans were most common overall. Surprisingly, plastic and metal were found relatively more frequently at deeper depths, suggesting that the extent of marine debris on the seafloor may be far greater than known to date. MBARI researchers hope that this study will increase awareness of the growing problem of man-made debris in all parts of the ocean. It is far too expensive and impractical to locate and retrieve debris after it reaches the deep seafloor. The best solution is to reduce our reliance upon single-use, throw away items. Recycling, reusing, and properly disposing of trash items will help to keep litter from ever entering the ocean. Special thanks to: Additional footage and still images courtesy of Leanne Foster, the Tangaroa Blue Foundation, and the Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition (SEAPLEX). Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Script: Linda Kuhnz and Kyra Schlining Narration: Kyra Schlining Music: Whispering Waters, composed by Chuck Jonkey MBARI press release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2013/deep-debris/deep-debris-release.html Original journal article: Schlining, K., von Thun, S., Kuhnz, L., Schlining, B., Lundsten, L., Jacobsen Stout, N., Chaney, L., & Connor, J. Debris in the deep: Using a 22-year video annotation database to survey marine litter in Monterey Canyon, central California, USA. Deep Sea Research Part I. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967063713001039 More information on how you can help: http://marinedebris.noaa.gov/marinedebris101/welcome.html http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/default.asp http://www.marinelittersolutions.com
Anthology of Deep Sea Squids
The squids featured in this video were filmed in Monterey Bay (except for the Piglet Squid, which was filmed in the Gulf of California) at depths ranging from 980 to 3,150 feet. A) Black-eyed Squid (Gonatus) B) Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus gigas) C) Swordtail Squid (Chiroteuthis) D) Market Squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) E) Cockatoo Squid (Galiteuthis) F) Swordtail Squid (Chiroteuthis) G) Octopus Squid (Octopoteuthis) H) Piglet Squid (Helicocranchia) I) Swordtail Squid (Chiroteuthis) Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Music:
The secret life of Velella: Adrift with the by-the-wind sailor
In the spring, beaches can be covered by thousands or even millions of blue jellyfish relatives called Velella velella, the by-the-wind sailors. Velella typically live on the surface of the open ocean far from shore, propelled by winds pushing on their tiny sails. Velella is best described as a hydroid colony which has flipped itself over. It is unlike a traditional jellyfish (medusa), but rather like the benthic stage of a hydroid. Instead of living attached to rocks on the bottom, its "substrate" is the ocean's surface. These hydroid colonies bud off tiny medusae, little "jellyfish", just like many benthic hydroids do. A particularly striking feature of Velella is their blue pigmentation. In fact, most animals that live on the surface of the water (snails, jellies, fish) have blue pigmentation. It may serve different purposes for different organisms, but is likely a combination of camouflage and protection from the sun's rays. For more information on Velella and to report your own sightings go to jellywatch.org. Video producer: Susan von Thun Music: Steve Haddock Script and narration: Steve Haddock Animation: Steve Haddock Production support: Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Lonny Lundsten, Kyra Schlining, Linda Kuhnz Special thanks for image contributions: Casey Dunn - Portuguese man o' war Rob Sherlock - Velella washed up on beach Andrew McKee - Velella on sea surface Julie Himes - Velella on sea surface Elizabeth Eubanks - Velella washed up on beach Stephanie Bush - hydroids on pteropod shell
Diet secrets of the deep and fathomous
Recent research efforts by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute have advanced our understanding of the feeding relationships within open ocean food webs by carefully detailing who eats whom. Gathering this type of information is a necessary step towards conservation of ocean species and ecosystems. Studying the diets of deep-sea animals is a formidable challenge. The scientists analyzed 27-years of video footage collected by deep-diving, remotely operated submersibles. Results reveal a food web that is far more complex than previously known, with a dynamic assemblage of jellies, squids, fishes, worms, and crustaceans feeding on one another in a variety of permutations, to sustain life in the deep sea. For more information visit: https://www.mbari.org/unique-field-survey-yields-first-big-picture-view-of-deep-sea-food-webs/ Video editing: Susan von Thun, Kyra Schlining Script and narration: Anela Choy Music: Imua Garza (www.imuagarza.com) Production support: Steve Haddock, Bruce Robison, Lonny Lundsten, Linda Kuhnz Special thanks to: Steve Haddock (albatross video) and Ali Bayless (lancetfish gut content video) Publication citation: Choy, C. A., Haddock, S. H. D., Robison, B. H. Deep pelagic food web structure as revealed by in situ feeding observations. Proc. R. Soc. B. 284 20171767. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2017.2116. Published 6 December 2017. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1868/20172116
Studying larvaceans using DeepPIV (Particle Image Velocimetry)
Researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) recently published a paper describing a new laser device called Deep Particle Image Velocimeter (DeepPIV). By mounting this instrument on a remotely operated vehicle (a type of underwater robot), scientists can measure the flow of seawater through the filters of giant larvaceans--tadpole-like marine animals that are important players in ocean ecosystems. This video shows an experiment in which DeepPIV (on MBARI’s MiniROV) is used to illuminate the flow of particles through the filter of a giant larvacean. After measuring this flow, scientists discovered that larvaceans can filter more water than any other drifting marine animal known to science. Larvaceans play a significant role in moving carbon from the upper part of the ocean down into the deep sea. They build balloon-like mucus filters that concentrate food by filtering tiny particles out of the surrounding seawater. These particles contain organic carbon, some of which originated as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. When a larvacean’s filter becomes clogged, the animal abandons it, allowing the filter (and the organic carbon) to sink rapidly into the deep sea. If this carbon is buried on the seafloor, it may not reach the atmosphere again for millions of years. In this way, even tiny marine animals can help reduce global warming. Video production: Kim Fulton-Bennett & Kakani Katija Video editor: Kyra Schlining Music: Kim Fulton-Bennett For more information: http://www.mbari.org/lasers-shed-light-on-the-inner-workings-of-the-giant-larvacean/
Celebrating Cephalopods
In celebration of Cephalopod week 2016, we’ve put together a compilation of some of our favorite observations of these wonderful “head-footed” animals from the deep. Dumbo octopus (Grimpoteuthis) Pacific bigeye octopus (Octopus californicus) Japetella octopus (Japetella) Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) Black-eyed squid carrying an eggsac (Gonatus) North Pacific giant octopus (Enteroctopus dolfeini) Cirrate octopus (Cirrata) Pacific red octopus (Octopus rubescens) Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Production support: Lonny Lundsten, Kyra Schlining Music: Fallout by Konstantinos Panagiotidis For more information see: http://www.mbari.org/mbari-celebrates-cephalopod-week-2016/
High-tech robots reveal details of the deep
On land, we map details of the Earth with our eyes and hands, and use satellite images to trace out broader regions. We take for granted what we can easily see until we try to map landscapes hidden beneath the ocean. Engineers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute have designed two types of underwater robots to solve this problem. A torpedo-like, autonomous underwater vehicle, or AUV, first creates a map of the seafloor. Then, having examined these maps, MBARI scientists choose sites of interest to explore in more detail with a second underwater robot called a remotely operated vehicle, or ROV. The ROV collects samples and images of the targeted regions on the AUV map. This video was written and narrated by Laura Poppick, MBARI science writing intern.
Deep-sea sponges with a killer appetite
When most people think of sponges, they think of squishy, soap-filled kitchen sponges, or perhaps the graceful barrel sponges that grow around coral reefs. But in the dark depths of the ocean, some sponges have evolved into deadly predators, which trap and digest small, helpless prey. In a new paper in the journal Zootaxa, led by MBARI researcher Lonny Lundsten, a team of scientists describe three new species of predatory sponges that live in deep water off the coast of California and in the Gulf of California. Like tiny beach umbrellas sticking out of the deep seafloor, the new species of sponges consist of thin vertical stalks capped by parasol-like disks with “numerous long filaments radiating in all directions from the parasol edge,“ according to the authors of the Zootaxa article. Two of the newly named sponges were recorded on videotape by MBARI’s remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) at depths of about 2,500 to 4,100 meters. All three of the new sponges are members of the genus Cladorhiza. These three new species join three previously known species of Cladorhiza sponges along the West Coast of North America. One of the new sponges, Cladorhiza kensmithi, lives on the muddy seafloor off Central and Northern California. This sponge was named after MBARI deep-sea biologist Ken Smith, who has spent over 40 years studying deep-sea animals. A large number of C. kensmithi sponges were observed at “Station M,” one of Smith’s long-term research sites off the coast of Central California. These sponges are about 20 cm (8 inches) tall, and use root-like rhizoids to secure their stalks to muddy bottom. When they were first observed during MBARI ROV dives, researchers gave them the nickname “Sputnik sponges” because their filaments and large, conspicuous antennae disks looked like antennae on a satellite. As we continue to explore and study the deep sea we find bizarre, and often beautiful, adaptions to life in this harsh environment which never cease to amaze. Special thanks to: Shape of Life - fluorescent dye footage shapeoflife.org & facebook.com/theshapeoflife UC San Diego Library - Photographs of Dr. Carl L. Hubbs Photographers: J O'Reilly, MW Williams Music: The Lounge - Bensound.com Illustrations: Kelly Lance (MBARI) MBARI news story: https://www.mbari.org/newly-described-species-of-parasol-sponges-are-graceful-but-deadly-to-small-crustaceans/ Publication citation: Lundsten, L., Reiswig, H. M., and Austin, W. C. 2017. Three new species of Cladorhiza (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) from the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa 4317 (2): 247-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.2.3
Juvenile Luidia in midwater
In June of 2015, MBARI biologists observed several unusual animals swimming in the upper water column at a depth of 40 m (120 ft). After some research they determined the animals were the larval form of the sea star Luidia. The juvenile and adult sea stars are common in Monterey Canyon at depths of about 75-225 m (225-675 ft). They can be seen moving rapidly across the muddy seafloor on their elongate tube feet. Using MBARI’s remotely operated vehicles it is possible to collect these odd-looking juveniles for DNA testing in the lab to further confirm their identity to species. Video editor: Kyra Schlining Music: Daydream (Apple Inc.)
A sucker for jellyfish: The unexpected prey of the seven-arm octopus
The seven-armed octopus, Haliphron atlanticus, has only been observed by MBARI’s remotely operated vehicles three times in 27 years. In this species, the male keeps the hectocotylized arm hidden so it appears to be missing, thus the common name. During the most recent encounter, the octopus was holding the bell of an egg-yolk jellyfish (Phacellophora camschatica) in its arms. The octopus had apparently eaten most of the tissue that would have been hanging down from the bell, but the ring of jellyfish tentacles was intact. It looked as though Haliphron had not only made a meal of the jelly, but was hanging onto it, perhaps for defense or for help in catching prey. Haliphron is a member of the family Argonautidae, and now four genera in the family have been observed having some kind of relationship with salps or jellyfish—living on, in, or with the jelly. We know very little about the diversity of the communities that live in the deep sea, but even less about what these organisms eat. Paradoxically many large animals like whales, manta rays, and ocean sunfish eat small or gelatinous plankton —drifting prey that are easier to catch than fast-swimming fishes. This large octopus is another example of this interesting adaptation to life in the open ocean: live slow, grow big. For more information see: http://www.mbari.org/a-giant-deep-sea-octopus-is-a-sucker-for-jellies/ For more information on jellyfish or to report sightings of jellyfish and other marine organisms, go to http://www.jellywatch.org Video producer: Susan von Thun Music: Steve Haddock Script and narration: Steve Haddock Production support: Danielle Haddock, Kyra Schlining, Linda Kuhnz, Lonny Lundsten, and Nancy Jacobsen Stout Special thanks to Jeffrey Milisen for use of his Tremoctopus image. Publication citation: Hoving, H.J.T. and Haddock, S.H.D. The giant deep-sea octopus Haliphron atlanticus forages on gelatinous fauna. Sci. Rep. 7, 44952; doi: 10.1038/srep44952 (2017). http://www.nature.com/articles/srep44952
Fishing in the deep: observations of a deep-sea anglerfish
This video shows never-before seen footage of a deep-sea angler fish, Chaunacops coloratus. In it, we summarize recent work by scientists at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The video seen here was recorded by MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts at depths of 7,800 - 10,800 feet below the ocean's surface. For more information please see MBARI's news release at http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2012/chaunacops/chaunacops.html.
Eerie critters from the deep sea: BIG TEETH
A Halloween compilation of eerie, creepy, and scary deep-sea fish with BIG TEETH. In order of appearance: Aristostomias scintillans (Shiny loosejaw), Anoplogaster cornuta (Fangtooth), Tactostoma macropus (Longfin dragonfish), Chaenophryne, Chauliodus macouni (Viperfish), Tactostoma macropus (Longfin dragonfish), Chauliodus macouni (Viperfish), Tactostoma macropus (Longfin dragonfish). Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Music: Haunted, composed by Jason Bradley Livesay
Boneworms on dead whales in Monterey Bay
It sounds like a classic horror story—eyeless, mouthless worms lurk in the dark, settling onto dead animals and sending out green "roots" to devour their bones. In fact, such "boneworms" do exist in the deep sea. After planting several dead whales on the seafloor, a team of biologists recently announced that as many as 15 different species of boneworms may live in Monterey Bay alone. For more information, see: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2009/osedax-spp/osedax-spp-release.html
Automating a 20-year survey of deep-sea animals
A new robot that surveys the deep sea, collecting data autonomously, is providing a boost to one of MBARI’s longest running research projects. The Midwater Time-Series Project consists of video surveys of animals in the upper kilometer of the water column in Monterey Bay. Trained biologists review the video footage, identifying and documenting every animal seen. The resulting data can be analyzed to determine what species live in the midwater region, adding to our understanding of life in the deep sea, and how it is changing over time. The new i2MAP (Investigations of Imaging for Midwater Autonomous Platforms) AUV system will increase survey efficiency and add to the remotely operated vehicle observations MBARI researchers have been making over the past two decades. Video producer/editor/script/narration: Teresa Carey (MBARI Communications Intern) Music: Brethren, Arise by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/); Minor Corporate by JeffMusic (https://www.jamendo.com/track/1385881/minor-corporate) Production support: Kyra Schlining, Kim Fulton-Bennett, Lonny Lundsten, Susan von Thun, Todd Walsh For more information: http://www.mbari.org/automating-a-20-year-survey-of-deep-sea-animals/
Do the locomotion in the deep!
Researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute use remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to observe deep-sea animal behaviors. This video shows highlights from high definition video recorded from the ROVs. Deep-sea organisms use a variety of ways to swim. Among them are fish that undulate tails, sea spiders that "stride" through the water with their legs, and feather stars that use arm strokes to propel themselves when they detach from the seafloor.
New technology for measuring ocean change
Using technology developed at MBARI, researchers have observed that conditions in the coastal ocean have been changing far faster and far more than changes recorded in the open ocean. Considering that most of the biota we depend upon live in the coastal ocean, it is important that we understand how those animal communities will respond. Scientists at MBARI have created a laboratory system to simulate upwelling conditions—changing temperature, oxygen, and acidity of the water—to then expose animals to those conditions and measure how they perform in terms of their physiology and their interactions with other species. MBARI researchers have also developed the free ocean CO2 enrichment system, or FOCE, consisting of mesocosms—small chambers for experiments directly on the seabed. Researchers control the acidity within each chamber over long periods of time to evaluate how seafloor communities will tolerate changes in ocean acidity as they’re still living in a relatively natural environment. FOCE technology has been used around the world from the Antarctic, to coral reefs in Australia, helping us understand how changes in ocean acidity affects animal performance and interactions among a wide spectrum of species. All organisms have some capacity for adaptation. The question is whether they'll be able to adapt fast enough and far enough to keep up with the pace of environmental change that humans are driving through our CO2 emissions. That's one of the big challenges for the science community to investigate over the next century. Video producer: Nancy Barr Interview videographer: Todd Walsh Video editor: Kyra Schlining Music: http://taketones.com/track/digital-love (License N: TT000270144) Special thanks to the MBARI SeeStar camera team for the shallow-water rockfish footage; the Australian Antarctic Division for the Antarctic FOCE footage; Greg Johnstone/Australian Antarctic Division for the Antarctic FOCE images; David I. Kline/CP-FOCE on Heron Island for the Australian reef FOCE images; and to the Monterey Bay Aquarium for the fishing video. For more information, see the MBARI 2017 Annual Report: http://annualreport.mbari.org/2017/ocean-change
Icebergs and asteroids: Mapping extreme environments
How is mapping an iceberg similar to mapping an asteroid? They are actually much the same kind of a mission: they both involve using an autonomous vehicle in an extreme environment to map and explore a remote moving object. Taking on the task of mapping icebergs, engineers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute developed the iceberg autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). During an expedition to Greenland in 2017, the research team successfully tested new control technologies that would allow the vehicle to safely travel parallel to complex vertical terrain (i.e., an iceberg). To do this the engineers outfitted the AUV with obstacle-avoidance sonars, aligned in the horizontal plane, to make sure the vehicle didn’t collide with anything. The vehicle also had a second sonar on it, aligned in the vertical plane, looking out the left side of the vehicle. This vertical sonar collected mapping data revealing what the target surface looked like. The team ran several successful repeat missions on three different icebergs. Video producer: Nancy Barr Interview videographer: Todd Walsh Video editor: Kyra Schlining Music: http://taketones.com/track/digital-love (License N: TT000270144) Illustration: Kelly Lance For more information, see the MBARI 2017 Annual Report: http://annualreport.mbari.org/2017/icebergs
MBARI Ocean Stories - Kelly Benoit-Bird
In this Ocean Story, MBARI Senior Scientist Kelly Benoit Bird talks about her research on the mesopelagic zone – the part of the ocean that extends from ~650 to 3200 feet below the surface. Benoit-Bird uses specialized sonar to study the schooling behavior of small animals such as anchovies, as well as the foraging behavior of larger marine predators such as dolphins and seabirds. She has pioneered the use of sonar devices on underwater robots that dive deep below the surface to get extremely detailed views of predator-prey interactions in the wild. Video editing: Lonny Lundsten and Susan von Thun Music: www.bensound.com Open graphics: Kelly Lance Production support: Kelly Lance, Nancy Jacobsen Stout, Kyra Schlining Producer: Heidi Cullen
Deep-sea snowblower vents
In the ocean, there are places where it looks like it is snowing. These magical places are near undersea volcanic activity. The snow particles are clumps of bacteria that use chemicals to make food. Chemicals they use include hydrogen sulfide, which is toxic to virtually all other life. Most other ecosystems on earth depend on organisms that require sunlight to create food. Vents release hot water, minerals, and chemicals from beneath hardened lava. The fluid is almost 30 degrees F warmer than the surrounding water. The bacteria live beneath the seafloor and are also released from the vent. These tiny one-celled microbes provide food for many animals. A thick mat of white bacteria builds up; little worms and crustaceans feed on it. Nearby, "black smoker" vents may form when vents spew minerals in water up to 750 degrees F. In time, an amazingly robust community with thousands of animals flourishes here. This video was recorded 480 km (300 miles) west of the Oregon coast at 1,516 m (4,974 ft) depth with remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts. Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Script: Linda Kuhnz, David Clague, Jenny Paduan Music: Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairies
New deep-sea species Culeolus barryi
Culeolus barryi is a new species of tunicate (sea squirt) discovered by researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). These animals live suspended a little above the seafloor so that they can capture particles of food from water currents that flow through them. Named in honor of Dr. James P. Barry, a Benthic Ecologist and Senior Scientist who has contributed enormously to the study of deep-sea ecosystems. Video editor: Linda Kuhnz Music: Dreams Chill (bensound.com)
Eerie Critters of the Deep: Deep-Sea Nightmare
For Halloween 2016, our Eerie Critters of the Deep series continues with a Deep-sea Nightmare starring the black sea devil (Melanocetus), a skeleton shrimp (caprellid amphipod), the vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis), a bat-faced crab (Macroregonia macrochira), the fangtooth (Anoplogaster cornuta), a giant sea spider (as big as your open fist; not an actual spider, but an arthropod called a pycnogonid), bacterial ooze (growing on a hay bale placed at 3,000 m for a carbon experiment), the witch eel (Nettastomidae), a slimy mob of hagfish feeding on a dead fish, and the bloody-belly comb jelly (Lampocteis cruentiventer). Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Music: Horror Park by Filippo Vicarelli
Our ever-changing deep sea: Dramatic shifts in seafloor communities
Our knowledge of the ocean has increased tremendously with the advent of new technologies. How deep-sea animals can exist in places where no food is produced has long been a mystery. The seafloor in the abyss off the coast of California was studied for 24 years, and these investigations are contributing to our understanding about how conditions at the surface of the ocean control deep-living biological communities. Video producer: Linda Kuhnz Script and narration: Linda Kuhnz Production support: Lonny Lundsten, Kyra Schlining, Nancy Jacobsen Stout Music: Cool Raindrops, composed by Score Studio Original journal articles: Kuhnz, L.A., H.A. Ruhl, C.L. Huffard, K.L. Smith. 2014. Rapid changes and long-term cycles in the benthic megafaunal community observed over 24 years in the abyssal northeast Pacific. Progress in Oceanography http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S007966111400055X Smith Jr, K. L., A. D. Sherman, C. L. Huffard, P. R. McGill, R. Henthorn, S. Von Thun, H. A. Ruhl, M. Kahru, and M. D. Ohman. 2014. Large salp bloom export from the upper ocean and benthic community response in the abyssal northeast Pacific: Day to week resolution. Limnol. Oceanogr 59; 745-757. http://www.aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_59/issue_3/0745.html

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